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Faqs
 
Click on the links below to view the answers to the most frequently asked questions.
Q. How was natural gas formed?

Millions of years ago, the remains of plants and animals decayed and built up in thick layers. This decayed matter from plants and animals is called organic material -- it was once alive. Over time, the mud and soil changed to rock, covered the organic material and trapped it beneath the rock. Pressure and heat changed some of this organic material into coal, some into oil (petroleum), and some into natural gas -- tiny bubbles of odorless gas. The main ingredient in natural gas is methane, a gas (or compound) composed of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.


In some places, gas escapes from small gaps in the rocks into the air; then, if there is enough activation energy from lightning or a fire, it burns. When people first saw the flames, they experimented with them and learned they could use them for heat and light.


Q. How do we get natural gas?


The search for natural gas begins with geologists (people who study the structure of the earth) locating the types of rock that are usually found near gas and oil deposits.
Today their tools include seismic surveys that are used to find the right places to drill wells. Seismic surveys use echoes from a vibration source at the earth’s surface (usually a vibrating pad under a truck built for this purpose) to collect information about the rocks beneath. Sometimes it is necessary to use small amounts of dynamite to provide the vibration that is needed.

Scientists and engineers explore a chosen area by studying rock samples from the earth and taking measurements. If the site seems promising, drilling begins. Some of these areas are on land but many are offshore, deep in the ocean. Once the gas is found, it flows up through the well to the surface of the ground and into large pipelines. Some of the gases that are produced along with methane, such as butane and propane (also known as 'by-products'), are separated and cleaned at a gas processing plant. The by-products, once removed, are used in a number of ways. For example, propane can be used for cooking on gas grills.

Because natural gas is colorless, odorless and tasteless, mercaptan (a chemical that has sulfur like odor) is added before distribution, to give it a distinct unpleasant odor (smells like rotten eggs). This serves as a safety device by allowing it to be detected in the atmosphere, in cases where leaks occur

Q. What is LP Gas?


LP Gas (or LPG) stands for “Liquefied Petroleum Gas”. It is the term widely used to describe a family of light hydrocarbons called “gas liquids”. The most prominent members of this family are propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). Other members of the LP Gas family are ethane and pentane. These latter fuels have their own distinctive markets and are not further discussed here.

The term “liquefied gas” may seem a contradiction in terms since all things in nature are a liquid, a solid or a gas. Yet, it is the unique character of LP Gas that makes it such a popular and widely used fuel. LP Gas at normal temperature and pressure is a gas. It changes to a liquid when subjected to modest pressure or cooling. In liquid form the tank pressure is about twice the pressure in a normal truck tire.

The reason LP Gas is liquefied is to make it easy and efficient to transport and store. One unit of liquid has the same energy content as 270 units of gas. If left as a gas the container to hold the fuel would be 270 times larger than what is required as a liquid. In other words, LP Gas has density (compactness) for storage and transportation, yet all the benefits of a clean vaporous fuel when used at the burner tip or engine.

LP Gas usually consists of a mixture of propane and butane for standard heating and cooking purposes. Propane starts vaporising above -45°C, so it is more versatile for general use. Butane starts vaporising above -2°C and requires a propane/butane mixture in cold environments as it will not vaporise as readily as propane. LP Gas can also be used in specialised applications that require a more rigorous specification. Such applications include food processing, aerosol propellants and automotive fuel (autogas).

Q.What are the major uses of LPG?


LP Gas was discovered in the early 1900s. Throughout the years thousands of applications have been developed to make use of this clean burning, all-purpose, readily available, portable and efficient fuel. Although the uses of LP Gas are widespread throughout the world, many are not as familiar with it as they are of the more familiar natural gas, electricity, gasoline (petrol), and diesel. Yet LP Gas provides the same benefits to consumers as these other energies safely and efficiently to tens of millions of everyday users.

Choosing LP Gas as an energy source represents a valuable contribution to the ongoing fight to conserve energy and protect the environment. With a wealth of applications, LP Gas offers numerous ways to provide energy and combat pollution at the same time.

LP Gas has literally thousands of uses around the home, on the farm, in commercial business, in industry and transportation. Wherever heat, light or power is required, LP Gas can be used.

The residential and commercial markets where it is used for cooking, heating, water heating, drying, and refrigeration consume some 50% of the world total LP Gas retail sales. When LP Gas provides heat, power, and light together, the combined system is a very cost effective total energy source.
LP Gas also has non-fuel uses as aerosols and refrigerants.

LP Gas as a Transportation Fuel

LP Gas is the preferred alternative automotive transportation fuel. Recognised early on in the search for viable alternative fuels, autogas is today the most important and accepted alternative fuel in the automotive sector with more than 7 million vehicles operating throughout the world. There are reasons why LP Gas is so popular. Driving range is equivalent to gasoline, engines last longer, refuelling infrastructure is affordable, and in many countries the fuel is less expensive. Above its technical and economic advantages, LP Gas is clean and helps combat urban air pollution. New hi-tech fuel systems work in consort with on-board emission control systems making it possible to meet even the most rigorous emission standards.

Residential


Cooking Central heating Space heating Hot water Air-conditioning Gas barbecue Patio heaters Camping Boats Gardening Swimming Pools Clothes drying

Commercial

Heating (offices/premises) Portable warm air blowers Sanitary hot water Fixed warm air heaters Refrigeration Radiant heating Clothes drying Swimming pools Balanced flue heaters Terrace heaters Central heating Air-conditioning


Agriculture

Agriculture and horticulture industries around the world know that LP Gas is the “growing” fuel, not only the “green” fuel. Greenhouse heating, flame weeding, crop drying, waste incineration, distillation and powering equipment are among the ways LP Gas works in agriculture.


Industrial Applications

In industry the metalworking, ceramic and glass producers, textile, paper, construction industries and many others use LP Gas. These industries value this fuel that provides controllable heat only where wanted and leaves no residue after combustion. Whether across the street or across the oceans, moving goods is widely dependent on LP Gas powered forklift-industrial trucks.
  • Ceramic manufacture
  • Glass manufacturing
  • Metal heating and processing
  • Laundry
  • Painting (drying and curing)
  • Drying (cement, bricks)
  • Cigarette lighter fuel
  • Pre-heating of material
  • Glazing of pottery
  • Aluminium die-casting
  • Laboratory (crucibles)
  • Remote emergency lighting
  • Thawing
  • Pre-heating engines
  • Paint removal (burning)
  • Mobile & remote generators
  • Clearing fog on airfields
  • Production of film
  • Feedstock for production of chemicals

Leisure Industry

Even the leisure industry is greatly dependent on LP Gas. Outdoor grill users prefer LP Gas because there is no messy charcoal to deal with, temperature control is instantaneous, and no residual fire that may cause harm. Whether for home, restaurants or party venues, patio heaters are commonly dependent on LP Gas. Even outdoor pest control is possible using LP Gas equipment. Whether providing heat, light and power for the camper in a national park or for the climbers to the top of Mount Everest, LP Gas is there.
Only this single fuel, LP Gas, can serve such a wide variety of uses as cooking fuel for the family in Brazil and the restaurant owner in India, refrigeration for the shop owner in Ireland, autogas for taxis in Tokyo, heat for the family home in Canada, flame weeding for the rancher in Texas, heat to provide lift for the first solo non-stop round the world balloon trip, hair spray for the Hollywood starlet, and life saving fuel for Mt. Everest climbers. Even the Olympic torch is LP Gas powered.
That’s is why it is sometimes referred to as the world’s most multi-purpose fuel.


Q.Why do we use LPG?

Developing countries are now suffering serious and increasingly rapid de-forestation. In addition to environmental degradation, loss of forest cover removes the wood energy resources on which traditional rural economies are based. In response to the increasingly serious shortages, programs to conserve fuel wood supply and to expand fuel wood production have multiplied, but have frequently been ineffective due to a lack of understanding of the economic, political, social, and technical complexities of these problems.

Responses to these problems include tree-planting programs.

If globalization helps countries to have a higher growth rate and lift more people above the poverty line as in China and even India to some extent, it may indirectly protect environment and promote sustainable growth.

Poverty is a big polluter. For example, poor people cannot afford to use kerosene or LPG gas and often burn more polluting wood and coal as fuel. Apart from creating greater smoke, it leads to greater de-forestation, soil erosion and reduction in agricultural productivity, which in turn, adversely affects poor small farmers. With more purchasing power for such people, better connectivity and greater access to modern facilities like LPG gas, solar cookers and lights which globalization may bring about, the pollution level is likely to go down.

Q. How to conserve fuel?
  • Organize your cooking. Keep all the necessary things ready for cooking. This will help you cook fast and thus save gas.

  • If you have to stop cooking for a short while, please switch off the gas. After all, it's cheaper to light another match.

  • Use as little liquid as possible when cooking - surplus water requires more heating and therefore more gas is used than is necessary.

  • Match the burner to the vessel. Use a small vessel on a small burner. A large burner consumes 15 percent more gas.

  • Cover the vessel while cooking. A cover helps prevent the steam from escaping. This means quicker cooking. A cover also helps retain the aroma of the food.

  • The family that eats together saves gas. If you have to heat food just once, it means less waste. Re-heated food is also less nutritious


Q. In case of a Gas smell
  • Close all regulator and burner knobs

  • Open all doors and windows

  • Do not operate any electric switches

  • Don’t use Mobile Phones

  • Do not smoke

  • Contact your nearest Gas distributor immediately

  • Contact the fire department

  • Evacuate the premise immediately



Q.If the Fire or Leaks occur
  • If the leak is indoors, open all doors and windows.

  • Do not switch any lights or electrical equipment on or off as this may cause a spark.

  • Don’t try to put out a fire involving LPG – leave it to the fire brigade. It is safer to evacuate everyone from the area. An overheated cylinder can explode.

  • If you have fire- fighting equipment make sure that you know how to use it, and that it is maintained regularly. Don’t try to use it on burning LPG.

  • A fire involving grass, rubbish etc. can be tackled with a fire extinguisher or hose reel if it is safe to do so. Always call the fire brigade first.

  • If the fire is near the cylinder or you can’t put it out quickly – leave it.

  • Evacuate the building immediately.

  • Dial 101 to call the fire brigade. Tell them LPG cylinders are on the premises.

  • Tell everyone to leave the premises and go to a safe place well away from the installation. If you have a fire alarm, activate it.

  • If it is safe to do, turn off all LPG appliances.

  • Call your LPG distributor and inform them of the problem so that they can send a representative and take the required safety measures.

  • Or call your Gas helpline or emergency service cell managed by the Oil Companies. These are operational 24 hours and on holidays also.
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